The word "quartz" comes 5 the German Quarz (help · info), which is of Slavic origin (Czech miners called it křemen). Other sources attribute the word's origin to the Saxon word Querkluftertz, meaning cross-vein ore. Quartz is the most common material identified as the mystical substance maban in Australian Aboriginal mythology.
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Quartz clock - Wikipedia
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Quartz watch definition: a watch that is operated 5 the vibrations of a quartz crystal controlled by a.
Quartz clock - Wikipedia
| Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples
During the 1970s, the "quartz watch" burst onto the scene as the newest high-tech gadget. Initially, these watches had red LED displays and they cost around $500 in the United States.
Since then, the quartz watch has evolved so that either an LCD or a traditional mechanical (hour and minute hand.
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A quartz clock with driven hands A quartz clock is a that uses an that is основываясь на этих данных by a crystal to keep time.
This creates a signal with very preciseso that quartz clocks are at least an more accurate than.
Generally, some form of digital logic counts the cycles of this signal and provides a numeric display, usually in units of hours, minutes, and seconds.
The world's first quartz clock was built in 1927 by Warren Marrison and J.
The world's first quartz watch, however, was unveiled by as the in December 1969.
Since the 1980s, when the advent of digital electronics allowed them to be made compact and inexpensive, quartz timekeepers Ступень RosaGres Lovely DLI угловая мм/3 become the world's most widely used timekeeping technology, used in most clocks and as well as computers and other appliances that keep time.
Many materials can be formed into plates that will resonate.
However, quartz is also a : that is, when a quartz crystal is subject to mechanical stress, such as bending, it accumulates electrical charge across some planes.
In a reverse effect, if charges are placed across the crystal plane, quartz crystals will bend.
Since quartz can be directly driven to по ссылке by an electric 5, no additional is required to use it in a.
Similar crystals are used in low-end cartridges: The movement of the stylus needle flexes a quartz crystal, which produces a small voltage, which is amplified and played through speakers.
Quartz microphones are still available, though not common.
A quartz plate's resonance frequency, based on its size, will not significantly rise or fall.
Similarly, since its resonator does not change shape, a quartz clock will remain relatively accurate as the temperature changes.
First quartz wristwatch movement, used in theCaliber 35A, Nr.
However, when found that quartz can resonate with less equipment and better temperature stability, steel resonators disappeared within a few years.
Later, scientists at then the U.
National Bureau of Standards discovered that a crystal oscillator could be more accurate than a.
The electronic circuit is anan whose output passes through the quartz resonator.
The resonator acts as aneliminating all but the single frequency of interest.
The output of the resonator feeds back to the input of the amplifier, and the resonator assures that the oscillator "howls" with the больше на странице frequency of interest.
When the circuit starts up, even a single can cascade to bringing the oscillator to the desired frequency.
If the amplifier is too perfect, the oscillator will not start.
The frequency at which the crystal oscillates depends on its shape, size, and the crystal plane on which the quartz is cut.
The positions at which electrodes are placed can slightly change the tuning as 5 />If the crystal is accurately shaped and positioned, it will oscillate at a desired frequency.
In nearly https://xn--80afh5adm3cyc.xn--p1ai/black/gazonokosilka-al-ko-119065-silver-520-br-premium.html quartz watches, the frequency is 32 768 Hz, and the crystal is cut in a small tuning fork shape on a particular crystal plane.
A 15-bit counter driven by the frequency will overflow once per second, creating a digital pulse once per second.
The pulse-per-second output can be used to drive many kinds of clocks.
Although quartz has a very lowtemperature changes are the major cause of frequency variation in crystal oscillators.
The most obvious way of reducing the effect of temperature on oscillation rate is to keep the crystal at a constant temperature.
For laboratory-grade oscillators an is used, in which the crystal is kept in a very small oven that is held at a constant temperature.
This method is, however, impractical for consumer quartz clock and wrist-watch movements.
The crystal planes and tuning of a consumer-grade clock crystal are designed for minimal temperature sensitivity in 5 of their effect on frequency and operate best at about 25 to 28 °C Багажник Thule для Audi A6 5дв.
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At that temperature the crystal oscillates at its fastest.
Quartz watch manufacturers use a simplified version of the oven-controlled crystal oscillator method by recommending that their watches be worn regularly to ensure best performance.
Regular wearing of a quartz watch significantly reduces the magnitude of environmental temperature swings, since a correctly designed watch case forms an expedient that uses the stable temperature of the human body to keep the crystal in its most accurate temperature range.
Bottom right: quartzleft: button cell watch battery, top right: oscillator counter, top left: the of the that powers the watch hands.
Picture of a quartz crystal resonator, used as the timekeeping component in quartz watches and clocks, with the case removed.
It is formed in the shape of a tuning fork.
Most such quartz clock crystals vibrate at a frequency of 32 768 Hz.
In modern quartz 5, the quartz crystal or oscillator is in the shape of a small-trimmed or precision lapped to vibrate at 32 768.
This frequency is equal to 2 15 cycles per second.
A power of 2 is chosen so a simple chain of digital divide-by-2 stages can derive the 1 Hz signal needed to drive the watch's second hand.
In most clocks, the resonator is in a small can or flat package, about 4 mm long.
The 32 768 Hz resonator 5 become so common due вот ссылка a compromise between the large physical size of low-frequency crystals for watches and the large current drain of crystals, which reduces the life of the.
During the 1970s, the introduction of MOS allowed a 12-month battery life from 5 single when driving 5 a mechanical or a in an LCD digital watch.
LED displays for watches have 5 rare due to their comparatively high вот ссылка consumption.
Standard-quality 32,768 Hz resonators of this type are warranted to have a long-term accuracy of about six parts per million 0.
The crystal is deliberately made to run somewhat faster.
After manufacturing, each module is calibrated against a precision clock at the factory and adjusted to keep accurate time by programming the digital logic to skip a small number of crystal cycles at regular intervals, such as 10 seconds or 1 minute.
For a typical quartz movement this allows programmed adjustments in 7.
The advantage of this method is that using digital programming to store the number of pulses to suppress in a non-volatile memory register on the chip is less expensive than the older technique of trimming the quartz tuning-fork frequency.
The 5 logic of some quartz movements can be regulated by service centers with the help of a precision timer and adjustment terminal after leaving the factory, though many inexpensive quartz watch movements do not offer this functionality.
That is, rather than just counting vibrations, their computer program takes the simple count and scales it using a ratio calculated between an set at the factory, and the most recent time the clock was set.
These clocks become more accurate as they age.
Both and temperature compensation have been used in high-end quartz watches.
In more expensive high-end quartz watches, thermal compensation can be implemented by varying the number of cycles to inhibit depending on the output from a temperature sensor.
The average daily rate standard for is ±25.
To acquire the COSC chronometer label, a quartz instrument must benefit from thermo-compensation and rigorous encapsulation.
Each quartz chronometer is tested for 13 days, in one position, at 3 different temperatures and 4 different relative humidity levels.
Thermocompensated quartz movements, even in wrist watches, can be accurate to within ±5 to ±25 seconds per year and can be used as to determine by means of.
In 2018 Citizen announced it developed the Caliber 0100 Eco-Drive prototype autonomous high-accuracy quartz watch movement which is claimed to be accurate to ±1 second https://xn--80afh5adm3cyc.xn--p1ai/black/etr-60-x-70.html year.
The Caliber 0100 movement will not be available for sale to the public; the вот ссылка inside the movement will be introduced in future models, set to launch in 2019.
This is more than adequate to perform.
Still the frequency of a quartz crystal can slowly change over time causing the frequency to increase or decrease over time.
The effect of ageing is much smaller than the effect of frequency variation caused by temperature changes and manufactures can estimate its effects.
Generally, the ageing effect eventually decreases the frequency.
Factors that can cause a источник статьи frequency drift over time are stress relief in the mounting structure, loss of hermetic seal, contaminations contained in the crystal lattice, moisture absorption, changes in or on the quartz crystal, severe shock and vibrations effects, exposure 5 very high temperatures.
Most of the aging will occur within the first year of the crystals service life.
Crystals do eventually stop aging asymptoticallybut it can take many years.
Movement manufacturers can pre-age crystals before assembling them into clock movements.
To promote accelerated ageing the crystals нажмите сюда exposed to high temperatures.
If a crystal на этой странице pre-aged, the manufacturer can measure its ageing rates strictly, the coefficients in the ageing formula and have a microcontroller calculate out the corrections over time.
The initial calibration of a movement will stay accurate longer if the crystals are pre-aged.
The advantage would end after subsequent regulation which will, reset any cumulative aging error to zero.
A reason more expensive movements tend to be more accurate is that the crystals are pre-aged longer and selected for better ageing performance.
Sometimes individual crystals after pre-ageing are hand selected for high-accuracy movement performance.
Some self-rate and include "crystal farms", so that the clock can take the of a set of time measurements.
The first Swiss quartz clock, which was made after WW II lefton display at the in The piezoelectric properties of quartz were discovered by and in 1880.
The first quartz was built by in 1921.
In 1923, 5 the in the and Warren Marrison at produced sequences of precision time signals with quartz oscillators.
In 1927, the first quartz clock was built by Warren Marrison and J.
Horton at Bell Telephone Laboratories.
The next 3 decades saw the development of quartz clocks as precision time standards in laboratory settings; the bulky delicate counting electronics, built withlimited their use elsewhere.
In 1932 a quartz clock was able to measure tiny variations in the rotation rate of the 5 over periods as short as a few weeks.
In Japan in 1932, developed a crystal cut that gave an oscillation frequency with greatly reduced temperature dependence.
The National Bureau of Вот ссылка now based the time standard of the US on quartz clocks between the 1930s and the 1960s, after which it transitioned to.
The wider use of quartz clock technology had to await the development of cheap in the 1960s.
In December 1969, produced the world's first commercial quartz wristwatch, the which is now honored with.
The Astron had a quartz oscillator with a frequency of 8192 Hz and was accurate to 0.
The Astron was released less than a year prior to the introduction of the Swiss Beta 21, which was developed by 16 Swiss Watch manufacturers and used by Rolex, Patek and Omega in their electroquartz models.
The inherent accuracy and low cost of production has resulted in the proliferation of quartz clocks and watches since that time.
By the 1980s, quartz technology had taken over applications such as kitchen, bank vaultand time on munitions, from earlier mechanical movements, an upheaval known in watchmaking as the.
Quartz timepieces have dominated the and clock market since the 1980s.
Because of the high and low temperature coefficient of the quartz crystal, they are more accurate than the best mechanical timepieces, and the elimination of all moving parts makes them more rugged and eliminates the need for periodic maintenance.
A quartz clock hung on a wall Commercial analog and digital wall clocks became available in 2014 that utilize a double oven quartz oscillator, accurate to 0.
These clocks are factory-synchronized with the atomic time standard and typically do not require any further time adjustments for the life of the clock.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.
The absolute threshold usually starts to increase sharply when the signal frequency exceeds about 15 kHz.
The present results show that some humans can perceive tones up to at least 28 kHz when their level exceeds about 100 dB SPL.
Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition, 2002.
Proceedings of the IRE.
Bell System Пресс-гриль GASTRORAG NPL-EGD20E Journal.
Archived from on 2007-05-13.
Yoshinaka, Theory of Plane Elastic Waves in a Piezoelectric Crystalline Medium and Determination of Elastic and Piezoelectric Constants of Quartz, Phys.
March 1958, Volume 109, pp.
Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Archived from on 2007-11-28.
Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.
Bell System Technical Journal.
Archived from on 2007-05-13.
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