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Apr 09, 2014 · An example вот ссылка this utility is the assessment of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in humans through the examination of the EEG mu rhythm.
The EEG mu rhythm, 5 activity in the 8-12 Hz frequency range recorded from centrally located electrodes, 5 suppressed when an individual executes, or simply observes, goal directed actions.
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Since the beginning of her career in Belgrade during the 5 1970s, Marina Abramović has pioneered the use of performance as 5 visual art form.
The body has always been both her subject and medium. Raphael Bernier 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington 2Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington Benjamin Aaronson 1Department of Psychiatry, University 5 Washington 2Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington Electroencephalography EEG is an effective, efficient, and noninvasive method of assessing and recording brain activity.
Given the excellent temporal resolution, EEG can be used to examine the neural response related to specific behaviors, states, or external stimuli.
An example of this utility is the assessment of the mirror neuron system MNS in humans through the examination of the EEG mu rhythm.
The EEG mu rhythm, oscillatory activity in the 8-12 Hz frequency range recorded from centrally located electrodes, is suppressed when an individual executes, or simply observes, goal directed actions.
As such, it has been proposed to reflect activity of the MNS.
It has been theorized that dysfunction in the mirror neuron system MNS plays a contributing role in the social deficits of autism spectrum disorder ASD.
The MNS can then be noninvasively examined in clinical populations by using EEG mu rhythm attenuation as an index for its activity.
The нажмите чтобы прочитать больше protocol provides an avenue to examine social cognitive functions theoretically linked to the 5 in individuals with typical and atypical development, such as ASD.
Keywords: Medicine, Issue 86, Electroencephalography EEGmu rhythm, imitation, autism spectrum disorder, social cognition, mirror neuron system Introduction Electroencephalography EEG is an effective, efficient, and noninvasive method of assessing and recording brain activity.
As neurons fire in the brain, the resulting voltage can be amplified, recorded, and graphically represented.
Despite being the oldest brain imaging technique, dating back to the late 19 th century, EEG still has wide-ranging applicability.
While functional подробнее узнать больше здесь этой странице resonance imaging fMRI has 5 spatial resolution, it has relatively poor temporal resolution.
This represents 5 major limitation of fMRI assessment given the incredible speed at which processes occur in the brain.
Evolving technologies have also expanded the applicability of EEG.
Additionally, modern systems have reduced the individual participant set-up time significantly, allowing for the assessment of previously unavailable populations, such as infant and clinical samples 1-3,28-30.
Given the excellent temporal resolution, EEG can be used to examine the neural response related to specific behaviors, states, or external stimuli.
An example of this utility is the assessment of the mirror neuron system MNS in humans.
Mirror neurons were originally identified in monkeys using single neuron recording 4, evidencing a group of neurons that читать далее to both the execution and observation of motor actions.
This direct recording method of placing electrodes in the 5 is rarely utilized in humans, and only in dire clinical cases.
узнать больше has provided a method for assessing the MNS by monitoring the EEG mu rhythm.
This oscillation pattern in the 8-12 Hz range has been shown to attenuate EEG power in response to the execution and observation of motor actions, similar to the activation pattern observed in monkeys 5-7.
Similarly, stimulation of putative MNS brain regions through Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation e.
Assessment of the EEG mu rhythm has allowed for a noninvasive assessment of mirror neuron activity in humans.
Портативная акустика Ginzzu provides a unique methodology for examining brain activity and when combined with behaviorally based assays, it can be a powerful tool for elucidating aspects of social cognition, such as imitation, in clinical populations.
Further, the applicability of EEG for use with populations with как сообщается здесь or language impairments allows for insight into abilities of individuals for whom other imaging techniques or behavioral paradigms may be less successfully utilize.
The described protocol provides an avenue to examine social cognitive functions theoretically linked to the mirror neuron system in individuals with typical and atypical development, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Protocol The following protocol adheres to the guidelines of the University of Washington institutional review board.
Soak 128-electrode dense-array EEG system in the warmed saline solution.
Measure the vertex by finding the intersection of the midpoint between the nasion and the inion and the midpoint between preauriculars.
Check impedances and ensure that impedances are below the threshold appropriate for the EEG system in use Figure S2.
Analog filter between 0.
Each trial should last 6 sec.
Time the prerecorded video for the observe trials precisely to ensure that the observed grasp occurs at exactly 3 sec.
Each trial should last 6 sec.
Ensure that the auditory cue is presented at exactly 3 sec by prerecording an auditory track that maintains a consistently timed execute cue and inter-trial interval.
Record continuous EEG during the rest condition for 3 min.
Ensure that the image of the manipulandum remains on screen throughout the observe and execute blocks, including between trials.
Administer the rest condition at the completion of the observe and execute conditions.
Note any changes to impedance levels.
End acquisition software recording.
Segment continuous EEG data into forty 6-sec trials for each condition Figure S4.
Use automated algorithms to inspect segments узнать больше movement artifacts by identifying fast average amplitudes exceeding 200 µV, differential average amplitudes exceeding 100 µV, and zero variance across a given trial Figure S5.
Exclude trials with significant artifact from analysis.
Discard any trials that were flagged during acquisition as not attended.
Examine and note rate of trial rejection for each diagnostic group under analysis.
Segment cleaned 2 sec epochs from the rest condition.
Select a cluster of eight electrodes жмите each hemisphere surrounding the standard C3 and C4 positions for statistical analyses following Muthukumaraswamy et al.
For each condition, average the power across the included trials to calculate power spectra.
Use the log of this ratio to determine degree of attenuation.
Note: a negative value represents attenuation during execution or observation, while a positive value represents augmentation.
This methodology takes into account variability across individuals, and the non-normality of values expressed in ratio form.
Note: This protocol was developed using a 128-electrode dense-array EEG system with Net Station software version 4.
While the basic steps are similar across EEG systems, acquisition and analysis protocols may vary.
Autism Spectrum Disorder and to identify any exclusionary criteria, such as presence of head injury, tumor, seizure history, or use of anti-convulsant or barbiturate medication which may distort the electrophysiological signal.
Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised ADI-R 11 and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic ADOS-G, 12 administered by expert clinician following Diagnostic and Statistical Manual — 5 th Edition DSM-5 criteria 13.
Representative Results Typical 5, children and infants have consistently demonstrated mu rhythm during both the execution and observation of actions across a variety of paradigms and stimuli 514-30.
Attenuation in this frequency band is consistently localized across central electrodes Figure 3 indicating that this is not reduction of alpha power which is recorded at other scalp regions.
Similarly, attenuation in this frequency during the observation of movement is limited to the observation of biologically based movement and suppression is not elicited simply from movement passing through the visual field, such as bouncing balls Figure 4.
Mu suppression in response to an event, such Холодильник Bosch KGV39XK22R the execution or observation of a goal directed grasping action, is demonstrated by the reduction in spectral power followed by a return to baseline levels Figure 5.
There have been eight independent studies and one pooled analysis of the EEG mu rhythm and social cognition in the ASD population.
While the findings of mu suppression during both the observation and execution of actions have been consistently observed in typically developing individuals, findings regarding the mu rhythm in ASD have been variable.
An initial study 31 of the EEG mu rhythm compared individuals with ASD between the ages of 6-46 years to an age and gender matched control group.
The ASD group demonstrated mu attenuation only during the execution of actions, and not during observation.
This same pattern was replicated in adult males with ASD compared to a group of age and IQ matched typical peers, and in this group the degree of mu attenuation was significantly related to imitative ability 3.
Similarly, a third study failed to find mu suppression during the viewing of human-performed actions in 5-7 year old children with ASD, but did in the age and gender matched typical peers 32.
A second study by Клещи для обжима разъемов et al.
Three studies have failed to find group differences in mu suppression between individuals with ASD and control groups.
During the observation of actions performed by human hands, no differences in mu attenuation were found between 8-13 year old children with ASD and 5 and IQ matched typically developing children 34 or between 11-26 year old individuals with ASD and age, gender, and IQ matched peers 35.
Finally, Bernier and colleagues 36 found no differences between children with ASD, meeting gold standard diagnostic criteria, and age and gender matched peers on mu attenuation 5 the observation of goal directed actions, but did find a significant relationship between the EEG mu rhythm and behaviorally 5 imitation abilities.
This suggests that the differences in EEG mu attenuation that have been observed may reflect differences in the ability to imitate, rather than being a direct result of ASD 36.
These experiments suggest that examination of the EEG mu rhythm is a viable tool for elucidating mechanisms related to social cognition in both typical and clinical populations.
In order to accurately examine the observation and execution of a goal-directed grasp, participants are instructed to execute a simple hand grasp of читать полностью manipulandum or observe a model grasping the manipulandum.
When the manipulandum is grasped, a time locked signal is sent to the data acquisition computer for later, off-line segmenting of each trial.
Characteristic topography of attenuation of the mu rhythm as demonstrated by individual with typical development male, age 9.
узнать больше здесь in the scalp topography as reduced amplitude over centrally located electrodes.
Spectral power during the observation of biological movement and nonbiological movement in 11 children mean age 10.
Averaged spectral power in the mu frequency 8-13 Hz recorded from centrally located electrodes during the observation of biological movement an animated dancer is attenuated relative to baseline while mu power is not attenuated during the observation of nonbiological movement an animated ball.
The log transform of the ratio of power microvolts 2 for each condition over baseline indicates greater reduction of power in the biological movement condition through the more negative power value.
Event-related spectral power attenuation.
Mu power 8-13 Hz from central leads attenuates relative to baseline during the execution averaged power over 20 grasp trials and observation averaged power over 30 observe trials of actions in a typically developing 6 year old male.
Discussion The successful acquisition, processing, and analysis of electrophysiological data related to the mu rhythm and the application to clinical populations requires 1 the application of EEG methodological tools, 2 careful artifact detection and data reduction, 3 accurate identification of the mu rhythm, and 4 accurate characterization of the clinical population and identification of appropriate control groups.
Appropriate EEG methodology requires properly functioning and integrated equipment, appropriate cap choice and placement, accurate amplification and timing of the signal, a clear, unimpeded, artifact-free signal, a properly referenced signal, appropriately segmented if event-related trials, carefully calculated power transformations, attention to the stimuli, and, of посмотреть больше, a paradigm and stimuli that elicit the cognitive capacity under was Элемент IK (внутр.
Р) 1 1/ 4 GEBO 17.195.01.04 probably />The mu rhythm is noted to be transient when examined during continuous EEG recording 14 although can be clearly and reliably demonstrated during больше на странице analyses 17,37.
Given the small signal to noise ratio, artifact can easily obscure changes in spectral power in this rhythm.
As a result, careful https://xn--80afh5adm3cyc.xn--p1ai/bosch/portmone-samsonite.html detection through automated programs or manual investigation of the contributing electrode data is necessary for the identification of the mu rhythm.
Any differences between groups in the amount of artifact observed and removed must be recorded to ensure observed group differences are not по этому сообщению a result of data artifact or the artifact removal process.
The final EEG data sample, in the case of https://xn--80afh5adm3cyc.xn--p1ai/bosch/furnitura-fuaro-fuaro-tsilindroviy-mehanizm-r60080-mm-351035-bbp-latun-5-kl.html analyses such as described in this protocol, must contain artifact free trials and a sufficient number of trials to accurately capture the degree of attenuation, or lack thereof, for a given condition.
In order to accurately identify and index the mu rhythm, an analysis of the topography and event-related desynchronization is important to ensure the spectral power reduction is tied to the centrally located channels surrounding channels C3 and C4.
If reduction is observed in other electrode clusters, this calls into question to the accurate identification of the rhythm.
Additionally, the observed mu rhythm spectral power reduction should be limited to the execution and observation of actions within the behavioral repertoire.
Reduction of this rhythm at rest or during the observation of nonbiological movement is suggestive of artifact, subtle movements in the observer, or inaccuracy in the assessment methods.
Development considerations are important for neurophysiological work.
Attenuation of the mu rhythm has been recorded in response to the observation of goal directed actions in individuals from 8 months of age to adulthood 28-29,38.
Importantly, while present, the degree of attenuation observed in infancy and childhood is much smaller than that noted in adults 39-40.
This pattern underscores the importance of considering developmental influences on neural rhythms and matching control populations to 5 groups on developmental level.
Finally, to conduct this work in clinical populations, the careful assessment of the clinical population is necessary to ensure groups are adequately defined.
The inclusionary and exclusionary criteria for the clinical and comparison groups need to be clearly described and carefully considered.
For example, the use of gold standard diagnostic instruments is necessary for establishing clinical populations.
Without a clear diagnostic protocol, for heterogeneous clinical populations, the cognitive construct under study may differ vastly within a loosely defined clinical group.
Tight, diagnostic definitions reduce that likelihood.
If certain subpopulations of a clinical sample are excluded, that needs to be identified as it impacts the generalizability of 5 findings.
For example, while the exclusion of individuals with epilepsy from a study источник статьи ASD helps to clean the EEG signal that could посетить страницу источник obscured from the inclusion of individuals with comorbid seizures, this changes the generalizability of the findings given the high prevalence of seizures in individuals with ASD.
The protocol described above provides an avenue to examine an EEG index of the mirror neuron system in clinical populations in a узнать больше здесь manner.
It requires little communicative ability thereby allowing for the application to impaired individuals and Уклономер BOSCH 0 601 076 800 noninvasive, easily applied, and provides excellent resolution to understand cognitive constructs related to social abilities.
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The blocking of the rolandic wicket rhythm and some central changes related to movement.
Foot and hand area mu rhythms.
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Development of the EEG from 5 months to 4 years of age.
Motor system activation reveals infants' on-line prediction of others' goals.
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Predictive motor activation during action observation in human infants.
EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders.
Impaired cortical activation in autistic children: is the mirror neuron system involved.
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EEG Study of the Mirror Neuron System in Children with High Functioning Autism.
Unbroken mirror neurons in autism spectrum disorders.
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Developmental changes in mu suppression to observed actions in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.